HIS 415 DeVry Entire Course

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HIS 415 DeVry Entire Course

HIS 415 DeVry Entire Course

HIS 415 DeVry Complete Course

HIS415

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 1 Discussion 1

Westerners Reading Overseas History (graded)

Most people, most of the time, know their own national history better than they know that of other nations, even their neighboring nations. Even though we know our own history better than that of others, we often learned it during our secondary education through factual information about dates, places, and leading personalities.

The study of history is much more than memorizing sets of facts and inferences based on facts. The boundary of what constitutes history is a vague one, and it is driven by the broad or narrow viewpoint that is chosen by authors. Every author has a viewpoint, and the authors are motivated to research and write by considerations that are often not made known but which are operating nonetheless. The boundary also intersects a great many academic disciplines to establish the context in which the facts occur and the factors operate.

As viewpoints drive authors, so our own viewpoints drive our work as readers and discoverers. As people of “the West,” our perspective is limited by our own experience of living in our own time and place –limits known individually as persons, and collectively as citizens of nations. We discover just how foreign we are as Westerners when we venture across boundaries of time, distance, culture, and language to learn about what happened overseas. What a telling word “overseas” is!

So, let’s go on a treasure hunt.

What do we need to know that we do not (yet!) know in order to make progress as we begin our study of Vietnam and the 20th-century experience? What do we need to know and discover in order to analyze the history in an expansive sense of that part of Southeast Asia that became known as French Indochina a half century ago?

Having thought that through, go hunting to find those things and bring them back to class to tell your classmates about them.

This section lists options that can be used to view responses.

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 1 Discussion 2

Rising Tide of Nationalist Expectations (graded)

The history and identity of the Vietnamese people reaches very far back. Their hopes and expectations for their own future do not just begin where our class textbook begins (at the end of World War II), nor do their often troubled relations with their neighbors in Southeast Asia.

For all the horrors of global warfare, World War II brought such disruption to world order that long-repressed hopes of colonized people found opportunity for new expression and leaders rose to the opportunities for change.

Our course is about the whole of 20th-century experience, with the Vietnam War being the centerpiece. For our discussion, let’s start here with TCO #4: How can we best understand how the agrarian Vietnamese people could come together during and after global warfare to restore their national identity and raise up leaders to meet their challenges?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 2 Discussion 1

Failure of Diplomacy in 1954 (graded)

The readings and lecture have identified several formative activities that defined the American understanding of world history from 1946 to 1989 (and American activity during that period): Baruch’s labeling of world conflict as the Cold War in 1947, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, and Eisenhower’s figure of speech about falling dominoes.

As World War II began, the Vietminh formed as a guerilla army to resist French influence in the Vietnamese portion of Indochina. French respect for the Vietminh was so low that they called it “the barefoot army” – and yet the Vietminh organized over time to defeat much more sophisticated French forces by 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.

Let’s discuss how the operating assumptions of conflicting parties and other related nations prohibited constructive discussion at the Geneva Accords meetings of 1954 and brought about the continued failure of the diplomatic process to bring settlement in Vietnam.

From diplomatic effort in general and the 1954 Geneva negotiations in particular, what lessons can we learn about necessary conditions and understandings that are essential for conflict negotiations to succeed?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 2 Discussion 2

Issues of Collective Security (graded)

An antecedent to the world situation at the time of the Vietnam War was the first collective security agreement: the League of Nations (1919–1946). President Woodrow Wilson had broken new ground in international relations when he proposed the League of Nations concept in 1919 at the Treaty of Versailles negotiations that followed World War I – known at the time as The Great War. Other collective security agreements relating to the situation in Southeast Asia include the UN, Warsaw Pact, NATO, and SEATO. There were also other agreements elsewhere in the world. The United States was involved in the creation of all these agreements except the Warsaw Pact.

What were the purposes to be achieved in collective security agreements? What were the dangers to be avoided, and what were the fears?

And what was going on at their creation that made them differ so sharply in form, authority, decision-making ability, and military response capability? Our special concern is the case of SEATO. Treaties and alliances go back as far as written history will take us, but in the 20th century we start something altogether new with collective security agreements.

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 3 Discussion 1

Cold War Always Lurking (graded)

The Cold War ran from the end of World War II in 1945 to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. That is a lot of history, and a great many events occurred in the world during those 44 years. One of them, but only one of them, is the proxy war that we call the Vietnam War.

There was always a danger that a rather low-level proxy war could escalate and even rise to the level of nuclear confrontation and war. The dangers were perceived as great – that the Cold War could get hot and out of control.

To start, what other events of the Cold War years fit this idea of “proxy war?” What kind of steps did world leaders take to keep Cold War proxy wars from heating up? What were such leaders thinking?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 3 Discussion 2

Shifting from Advisors to Combatants (graded)

Not long before the Vietnam War is considered to have started – around the time period we focus on this class week, 1963 and 1964 – Dag Hammarskjøld of Sweden was serving as Secretary General of the United Nations. He is quoted to have said, “Peacekeeping is not a soldier’s job, but only a soldier can do it.” This quote is often the driving logic behind what came to be known as mlitary operations other than war.

With the years prior to this week’s discussions, American forces in southern Vietnam were relatively few and were called “advisors.” They brought American expertise with them for the purpose of training. From 1950 onward, the MAAG and later Special Forces trained Vietnamese forces to serve as a modern combatant force, but in this course week period, American forces moved beyond a partnership arrangement and took on direct combat roles.

Such a shift called for decisions at the highest levels. What can we learn about the minds and concerns of American senior leaders that allow for difficult decisions and commitments at such moments – what we might call “turning points?”

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 4 Discussion 1

Trying to Succeed in Limited War (graded)

Limited war as an ideology depended on a number of assumptions that limited what results could be achieved at the practical level.

The standing rules of engagement (ROE) were the practical expression of limited war ideology at the battlefield command and execution level. Think expansively and generatively about the impact of limited war ideology and then discuss these questions with other students:

  • Within the concept of limited war, what would constitute the “winning” of the Vietnam War?
  • What sort of successful outcomes would measure the win?
  • How would we ever know if we had won it?

And then, what was the glue that held the lmited war concept together with all its difficulties of thought and application?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 4 Discussion 2

Formless” and “Frontless” Warfare (graded)

The Vietnam War was often described as a “formless war” and a “frontless war.” It resembled no other war in history as seen by military theorists and historians.

Thinking expansively, what sorts of assumptions needed to be made and what sorts of values had to be honored in order to make such a formless and frontless war even possible – let alone sustainable? Discuss that issue within our classroom to understand the impact of that situation fully before we discuss what sort of tactics could be effective there.

Be thinking ahead a few days as this discussion evolves; be clear in your mind what sort of activities are described by words such as “strategy,” “tactics,” “logistics,” and “attrition.”

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 5 Discussion 1

Making Presidential Decisions (graded)

President Harry Truman, the first Cold War President, had a sign on his desk saying “The Buck Stops Here.” The Webliography contains a link to the photo and story. Indecisive people can pass on their responsibilities and “pass the buck,” and advisory people can propose their concepts and lobby for acceptance, but the President can ultimately turn to nobody else. Presidents must make the hard decisions. It is a heavy mantle to bear on those presidential shoulders. It is lonely at the top.

President Johnson’s “wise men” possessed depth in their areas of expertise beyond that of the President, who was a master mover of legislation to accomplish domestic social programs but very much out of his league in military matters and international relations.

To begin, evaluate this question: To what extent was the March 1968 reevaluation of the Vietnam War, as a function of Cold War ideology, accomplished to satisfy domestic concerns rather than international concerns? In a time of mixed obligations, how can we differentiate what is domestic from what is international in American politics?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 5 Discussion 2

Impact of News Photography (graded)

When the dissolution of European colonialism began after World War II, the news media technology of the day was called a “newsreel.” To see the faces and hear the voices of world leaders and reports of events, you would watch one or two short films at the movie theaters along with the movie previews. These newsreels would be weeks or even months old, but they were the closest one could get to witnessing the events that we can see instantaneously on television today. If, as they say, “a picture is worth a thousand words,” then the photographs in newspapers and the filmed newsreels taught powerful lessons. Our textbook contains some powerful photographs that still rivet our attention today.

  • Page 68 Figure 3.1 – President Eisenhower greeting President Ngo Dinh Diem at Washington National Airport in 1957
  • Page 105 Figure 4.3 – The Buddhist monk immolating himself on a Saigon street in 1963
  • Page 232 Figure 8.5 – Brigadier General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a Viet Cong member on a Saigon street in 1968
  • Page 340 Figure 12.2 – President Nixon greeting returning POW LCDR John McCain in 1973

Your assignment is to go on a field trip through the Internet and bring back two photographs for discussion of their impact: one from Vietnam activity (not necessarily combat-related) and one from any other source that you think made significant impact on the public. Be sure to give the URLs in your discussion post for others to go and see them. Then, with each one, write a paragraph about why that photo made significant impact on the public perception of events. Okay, off you go on your field trip. We will await your return.

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 6 Discussion 1

How Diplomacy Involves Saving Face (graded)

The class lectures and readings from Dr. Moss’ book speak about how presidents get personally invested in the results of their work, and how that investment impacts the decisions they make. Presidents do not, however, engage in diplomatic negotiations directly. They send ambassadors and negotiators who may be as senior as the Secretary of State, in the example of Dr. Henry Kissinger at the Paris Peace Talks. Diplomats also get personally involved. They get involved with their own desires for career success, as well as their desires for positive outcomes for their own countries. Doing poorly and conceding often requires that negotiators not be embarrassed; that is, that they “save face” for themselves personally and for their governments at home. Let’s start this discussion with the famous leaders mentioned so far in the course: In the Week 6 readings you see their own need to “save face” for themselves and their countries. What are some of the great examples shown so far of “saving face” on the part of diplomats? What does “saving face” mean in diplomatic situations?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 6 Discussion 2

WELFARE OF THOSE WHO SERVE (GRADED)

By 1968, over one million Americans were stationed outside the United States on their country’s business, wearing the uniform and trying to accomplish the missions of their commander-in-chief. Of that number, over a half million served in and near Vietnam, with that number capped at 549,500 in April 1968.

Vietnam assignments “in country” were generally limited to thirteen months fixed duration. Service members reported in and departed individually on fixed departure dates called DEROS (date of rotation) rather than with their whole unit together.

How can we assess the impact that deploying individually rather than by unit had on those who served those tours? How might that differ between those who had joined the Army voluntarily and those who had been conscripted for service by the Selective Service System?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 7 Discussion 1

Coping with After-effects of Combat (graded)

Everyone reacts to experiences, often for a lifetime. The scars of warfare are not all physical ones. The deepest scars are not seen; they are psychological and well hidden. People who live and work with combat veterans often cope with those effects also, because they relate to those veterans who struggle with their memories and harsh experiences. The Vietnam War differed from other wars, in that the experiences were highly individualized and personalized. Divisions and support units were deployed to Vietnam for many years, and individuals would transfer in and out for tours of specified length, most commonly for 13 months. They would fly in for transfer to replace somebody who had been there for 13 months, or who had been wounded or killed, and then fly out alone to other assignments at the end of their own tour. This system was very destructive to both unit integrity and personal welfare. Perhaps you are, or know some combat veterans from Vietnam. With great care to not violate the privacy of people or divulge their names, what can be understood and applied from the stories of those who served and left their commands and teams to return home individually, as opposed to the experiences of other war veterans?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 7 Discussion 2

American Foreign Relations After the War (graded)

Cold War ideology after World War II fostered the developing viewpoint that the American military was invincible, even as a viable and dangerous enemy worked toward global superiority: the Soviet Union.

The practical application of this ideology was the policy of containing the expansionist intentions of global communism as attempted by the Soviet Union in locations of opportunity. The most notable of these proxy confrontations was the attempt to contain the communist threat in Vietnam– the subject of this course.

President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger labored long and hard to achieve “peace with honor” and end American involvement in Southeast Asia in the Paris Accords of 1973. The failure of that peace to endure is the story that ends our course.

Looking beyond the fall of Saigon in April 1975, we will consider how the domino theory ultimately proved false, as President Johnson had speculated: There was no global Communist surge of expansion, and the United States, with its NATO allies and its worldwide interests, did not collapse. How has American ability to act worldwide been affected by the fact that some of the most dire claims made in support of the war ultimately proved wrong?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 1 Homework

NOTE: The basic directions that apply to all the written assignments are available in Doc Sharing.

Although the Viet people have a long history, our course begins in the 19th century with Vietnam as part of a larger area called French Indochina, a colony of France. The colonization took decades, but for our purposes the process of French control was complete in 1893.

Many nations of historic significance matured to the point where they sent out colonial settlers to faraway lands and over time eventually extended dominion over those lands. The United States also came into possession of faraway territories but without the same process of sending talented citizens to those lands with an agenda of establishing domination over them or of establishing an empire.

Your assignment is to write a short paper of two or three double-spaced pages on the topic listed below. Follow the directions carefully, and for this first week also explain carefully what you are saying.

The Week 1 Topic: Explain why it is both necessary and helpful to study the context of prior history, especially the experiences of participants in that history, in order to understand what is valued by these participants. Also, what resources will be most helpful to you as a student of history?

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page.

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 2 Homework

NOTE: The basic directions that apply to all the written assignments are available in Doc Sharing.

In a paper limited to three pages double-spaced, answer one of the following two questions:

  1. In the context of the Vietnamese society as the course has presented it through the online textbook so far, what evaluation can be made about the leadership styles and personal examples of Ho Chi Minh and Ngo Dinh Diem that would enable both of them to tap into the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people and mobilize support for their initiatives? Why, in Vietnam, was personal leadership so very important? Refer to specific examples.
  2. Given the emerging role of the United States in mid-20th century world affairs as described on the online textbook, what evaluation can be made of the leadership styles Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy that made them effective or inhibited their effectiveness? Why in the United States is the direct leadership of the President so very important?

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page

 

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 3 Homework

NOTE: The basic directions that apply to all the written assignments are available in Doc Sharing.

While history often appears to be a continuous stream of events and decisions, there are some that are so dramatic that historians sometimes call them “turning points.” Sometimes the term “tipping points” is also used. These are the moments when the whole future of events hangs in the balance.

There were several such turning points in this week’s readings and discussions: the Buddhist riots of 1963, the coup d’etat against Diem in 1963, the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, the attack on USS MADDOX in 1964, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964, and the 1964 presidential elections.

In a short paper of two pages double-spaced (maximum), take one of those turning points of your choice and write about it, answering these three questions:

  1. Why is your chosen turning point actually a turning point and not just another event?
  2. Why were the events immediately preceding the turning point necessary and essential in preparing for the turning point?
  3. What subsequent event or events were dependent on the action of the turning point; also, what possible event or events became impossible because the turning point occurred?

Give your paper a filename that includes your name in this format:

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 4 Homework

NOTE: The basic directions that apply to all the written assignments are available in Doc Sharing.

Conventional wars fought on the European models developed by Napoleon involve the leadership in writing and training troops for rules of engagement (ROE). Having ROE has brought both benefits and costs, and broadly training ROE at every level of leadership right down to the foot soldiers allows every participant to make responsible decisions and accomplish the mission as the battlefield commander has declared it. ROE is a management tool with benefits to keep situations under control and aligned with the mission. And yet the ROE in General Westmoreland’s command placed precise limits on what could be done and how it could be done.

The chain of command links everybody in uniformed service to those both senior and junior to them, all the way from the most junior ranks up to the President of the United States. There are a great many levels, but for this assignment we are looking at only six levels.

Looking all the way up the chain of command from the infantry soldiers in Vietnam to the President, write a short paper that will correlate the understanding of ROE with the limited war ideology and its assumptions as seen through the perspective and experiences of the six levels. Write your paper as seen from the following six points of the chain of command (a paragraph for each level plus an introduction and conclusion should be about right):

  • Individual soldiers in the field;
  • Battalion commanders;
  • Division commanders;
  • General William Westmoreland;
  • Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara; and
  • President Lyndon Johnson.

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page. For instructions on how to use the Dropbox, read these .next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=DVUHubSSO2&node=184″>step-by-step instructions or watch this Tutorial .next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=DVUHubSSO2&node=232″>Dropbox Tutorial.

See the Syllabus section “Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information.

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 5 Homework

This is the first of two written assignments that will deal with the lessons to be learned from the American experience of the Vietnam War. This assignment deals specifically with military lessons learned.

By your own orientation to cooperative work in a mission-driven organization like the armed forces, do you consider yourself to be a strategic thinker, a tactical planner, or a logistician? How do you determine that, and how does your own daily life and work demonstrate that?

Then, with your own understanding of what cooperation and support you need from others involved, what do you need from others in their roles to accomplish your own work successfully?

Finally, what strictly military lessons have you learned from the course so far that would help you accomplish your mission more effectively?

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page

 

HIS 415 DeVry Week 6 Homework

This written assignment deals with the lessons to be learned by the American experience of the Vietnam War.

This assignment deals with lessons learned in different arenas: diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and cultural/social contexts.

With your historian’s hat on, briefly write the single most significant lesson you have learned for each of the three areas given above, with reference to what you have learned in the textbook for the whole course to date.

Because there are so many lessons to write in the narrow space of this assignment’s page limit, brevity is important. Write with precision, and limit yourself to a well-developed paragraph for each lesson. There is nothing like a limit of space to make you get to the point! The size limit of this assignment remains, like the others in this course, two to three pages double-spaced.

For a summary at the conclusion, write a short paragraph about what you have learned in our course as a practical historian, a “lesson learned” for yourself. What you have learned about yourself in the role of being an observer of Vietnam and 20th century events, and what do you value in studying the events of the world’s past?

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page. For instructions on how to use the Dropbox, read these .next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=DVUHubSSO2&node=184″>step-by-step instructions or watch this Tutorial .next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=DVUHubSSO2&node=232″>Dropbox Tutorial.

See the Syllabus section “Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information.

 

HIS 415 DeVry Midterm Exam

Question 1. Question (TCO 1) Staying objective as historians makes special demands of us. Which of the following is a good example?

  • Relearning old concepts and vocabulary
  • Investing time in study
  • Setting aside preconceptions and political views
  • Visualizing our participation in the events of history

Question 2. Question : (TCO 1) There are several types of resource material for historical study and research. One of them is the secondary type; what is distinctive about it?

  • It has been translated into English for our use.
  • It consists of gathered reports in consolidated form.
  • It is only available in encyclopedia publications.
  • It is the most reliable form of research.

Question 3. Question : (TCO 1) Of the five major forms of government operating in the 20th century, our course describes two in a competitive struggle called the Cold War. What is distinctive about communism?

  • It seeks to distribute wealth equally but hold it in the hands of government.
  • It is a conservative system that reacts to outside influences.
  • It promotes private ownership of industry.
  • It is committed to a large military and naval presence in the world.

Question 4. Question : (TCO 1) What is a very good example of a primary research resource in historical study?

  • Textbooks written for academic courses
  • Eyewitness reports about events
  • Biographies of major leaders
  • Media reports of radio and television

Question 5. Question : (TCOs 1&3) One problem in diplomatic negotiations is that some agreements may not be honored. What does that mean?

  • A stalemate would not be broken and negotiations would cease.
  • Agreed pairs of action would be honored by one party, but not matched by the others.
  • The heads of state represented by negotiators would not accept the results.
  • Negotiators would doubt the each other’s honesty.

Question 6. Question : (TCO 2) There were several other Asian countries with abundant resources, so why did the French choose to colonize Vietnam?

 

HIS 415 DeVry Final Exam

Question 1.1. (TCO 6) What common name was given by Sir Winston Churchill, former Prime Minister of Great Britain, to describe a beginning threat to the world order? (Points : 5)

  • The Danger on the Horizon
  • The Avoidable Crisis
  • The Bamboo Curtain
  • The Iron Curtain
  • Fear Itself

Question 2.2. (TCOs 6, 10) President Eisenhower used a metaphorical figure of speech to describe the danger of Communism. That metaphor was what? (Points : 5)

  • … moving like a freight train
  • … an evil empire
  • … like a thief in the night
  • … be swept away by the red tide of communism
  • … fall like dominoes

Question 3.3. (TCO 9) The Tet Offensive began on January 30, 1968. Why was it called by that name? (Points : 5)

  • The name “Tet” celebrates a historic resistance victory over Chinese invaders in the 14th Century.
  • The name “Tet” refers to the lunar new year in Vietnamese culture, and the lunar new year began on that date.
  • “Tet” was the region where the first assaults were made.
  • “Tet” was a major strategic goal of the National Liberation Front forces.
  • “Tet” refers to the seasonal change that occurs right after the monsoon rains.

Question 4.4. (TCO 8) What colloquial term was used in The Great War to describe the effects of what was later given the clinical name post-traumatic stress disorder? (Points : 5)

  • Shell shock
  • Crippling anxiety
  • Critical incident stress disorder
  • Homecoming maladjustment
  • Interrupted maturity development

Question 5.5. (TCO 1, 9) Choose the title of the classic military warfare book written by Carl von Clausewitz, in which the term “fog of war” was coined. (Points : 5)

  • Brothers in Arms
  • The Gallic Wars
  • On War
  • The Peloponnesian
  • War The Third Reich

Question 6.6. (TCO 6) In what year did Bernard Baruch make his famous speech in which fear of the Soviet Union’s world motives for communist domination and the competitive atmosphere was given the moniker “The Cold War?” (Points : 5)

  • 1944
  • 1945
  • 1947
  • 1949
  • 1950

Question 7.7. (TCOs 1, 3, 7) Trusting relationships and alliances based on mutual interest and perceived trustworthiness of the participating parties are called by what term? (Points : 5)

  • Fiduciary relationships
  • Temporary arrangements
  • Alliances of common purpose
  • Frail and vulnerable
  • Alliances of convenience

Question 8.8. (TCO 6) The Cold War was fought without direct confrontation of the major nations but instead through a series of proxy wars and incidents in which they engaged each other indirectly. The Vietnam War was such a proxy war. Which one of the following was NOT a proxy war or incident of the Cold War? (Points : 5)

  • Capturing the USS PUEBLO in 1968
  • The dissolution of the British empire
  • The space race beginning in 1957
  • The Cuban missle crisis of 1962
  • The Berlin airlift operation of 1949

Question 9.9. (TCO 9) The Gulf of Tonkin incident, leading to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964, involved what U. S. Navy warship? (Points : 5)

  • USS ENTERPRISE
  • USS MADDOX
  • USS YORKTOWN
  • USS VICTORY
  • USS OLYMPIA

Question 10.10. (TCO 3) What was the planned result of The Geneva Accords of 1954? (Points : 5)

  • An eventual division of Vietnam at the 13th parallel
  • National elections in July 1956
  • A temporary division of Vietnam at the 20th parallel
  • Legitimacy of a separate and permanent government in southern Vietnam
  • Immediate replacement of French forces with multinational forces

Question 11.11. (TCO 9) Which Secretary of Defense served under both President Kennedy and President Johnson? (Points : 5)

  • Dean Rusk
  • Robert McNamara
  • William Wayland
  • Dean Acheson
  • Henry Cabot Lodge

Question 12.12. (TCOs 7, 8) What was the purpose of the War Powers Act of 1973? (Points : 5)

  • To exercise financial control over the budget of the Defense Department
  • To authorize the president to enforce the terms of the Paris Accords of 1972
  • To exert influence over the resignation of President Nixon in 1974
  • To restrict the power of the president to commit forces overseas without the advice and consent of Congress
  • To include Congress as a participant in the National Command Authority

Question 13.13. (TCOs 3, 4) The 17th parallel served what intended purpose in the Geneva Accords of 1954? (Points : 5)

  • The designated location of the Demilitarized Zone
  • A temporary boundary between the two regroupment zones of forces
  • Protection of the historic city of Hue from the fighting
  • Allowed families to reunite and resettle
  • Resumption of rice farming, which was needed for the food supplies and for export

Question 14.14. (TCO 5) Who was Ho Chi Minh’s leading military commander against French forces and later against American forces? (Points : 5)

  • General Vo Nguyen Giap
  • General Dien Bien Phu
  • General Nguyen Cao Ky
  • Prince Norodom Sihanouk
  • General Nguyen Sinh Cung

Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 7) What collective secrity agreement was used to justify American involvement in Southeast Asia? (Points : 5)

  • The UN
  • ANZUS
  • MAAG
  • SEATO
  • MACV

Question 16.16. (TCOs 5, 6, 10) The United States Constitution specifies in Article II, Section 2, that the president holds what authority in relationship to the armed forces? (Points : 5)

  • Commander-in-chief
  • Authority over state governors concerning use of their militia forces
  • The authority over state governors to cause federal forces to be deployed to other locations within the United States
  • The general of the armies
  • The authority to promote officers and to withhold promotions at will

Question 17.17. (TCO 7) A collective security arrangement to be called the League of Nations was proposed at the Treaty of Versailles peace conference. Which president proposed it? (Points : 5)

  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Warren G. Harding
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Theodore Roosevelt

Question 18.18. (TCOs 9, 10) Dr. Henry Kissinger served as Secretary of State under President Richard Nixon. From what type of background did Kissinger come to that service? (Points : 5)

  • A senior executive in the aerospace industry
  • A leading military theorist and strategist in a civilian think tank
  • Diplomatic corps service in Asia
  • The personal recommendation of President Johnson, for whom Dr. Kissinger had sometimes served as an advisor
  • A Harvard University professor who had written extensively on national security issues

Question 19.19. (TCO 4) Who was in military command of Vietminh forces at the decisive Battle of Dien Bien Phu in the spring of 1954? (Points : 5)

  • Vo Nguyen Giap
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Chiang Kai-shek
  • Chung Hee Park
  • Dong Minh Hoi

Question 20.20. (TCOs 1, 6, 7, 10) When the new Defense Secretary Clark Clifford raised fundamental questions about the American war policy, what did he discover? (Points : 5)

  • That there was the need for a single joint commander in Vietnam
  • That plans were fragmented in a way that prevented the different services from operating effectively with one another
  • That when his list of nine questions could not be answered, there was actually no military plan for victory
  • That the Vietnamese forces could not operate effectively, because they were deployed far from their homes
  • That reserve forces had not been called up in an appropriate manner

Page 2

Question 1. 1. (TCOs 3, 6) Once Bernard Baruch had identified and named the situation called the “Cold War” in his 1947 speech, it became the ideological underpinning of national foreign strategy of the United States and its allied nations. This strategy came to be called “containment.”

What was President Eisenhower’s metaphor for the threat of global communism? Explain the metaphor’s impact in developing and sustaining the Cold War foreign policy of the United States. (Points : 50)

Question 2. 2. (TCOs 7, 8, 9) Our course asked a question of both Vietnam and the United States: Who owns this war?

In two paragraphs, analyze and then explain your analysis of how the United States took ownership of the Vietnam War under President Johnson.

Be sure to speak to which factors were so important in the Americanization process, with some specific examples of what worked and what did not work.

Then, in a third paragraph, evaluate how the personality and intentions of President Johnson impacted the direction and pace of the escalation of conflict in Vietnam. (Points : 50)

Question 3. 3. (TCO 1) Historians read and research through three kinds of sources: primary, secondary, and tertiary sources.

For this question, your assignment is to work with SECONDARY SOURCES.

Discuss the meaning and identity of this type of source, with TWO examples of secondary sources as you met them in our class. How do you identify secondary sources when reading and in the media?

Then, explain what authority they hold for the study of history:

– Why is that authority valued within the three types?

– What about secondary sources limits their value and usefulness when studying history?

– What service is provided by this type that the other two types cannot provide? (Points : 30)

Question 4. 4. (TCOs 4, 6) U. S. policy makers serving under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson counted on some basic assumptions about the nature of North Vietnam that eventually proved false and led to a stalemate with the enemy. What was the significant assumption about North Vietnam that was overlooked and never confronted? (Points : 40)

Question 5. 5. (TCO 10) Throughout our course we have sought to learn lessons from history, and there have been a lot of them!

In two paragraphs, choose two lessons you learned from the overall topic of settling and living as an outsider in foreign lands. Express the significance of what you learned about them in terms of the foreign policy of France.

Finally, what can be done in this?