JADM 350 DeVry Final Exam

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JADM 350 DeVry Final Exam


JADM 350 DeVry Final Exam


JADM 350 DeVry Final Exam

Multiple Choice

Questions Question 1.1. (TCO 1) The Old French word “recerchier” means (Points : 3)

  • an intense search for knowledge
  • survey research
  • knowledge is power
  • to study
  • to learn

Question 2.2. (TCO 1) A method that uses a written questionnaire or formal interview to gather quantitative data on the backgrounds, behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of people or agencies is called (Points : 3)

  • survey research
  • experimentation
  • sampling
  • nonreactive research
  • all of the above

Question 3.3. (TCO 1) During the Enlightenment, people believed in (Points : 3)

  • logical reasoning
  • emphasis on experiences in the material world
  • a belief in human progress
  • a questioning of traditional religious authority
  • all of the above

Question 4.4. (TCO 1) Disinterestedness is (Points : 3)

  • the scientific norm mandating that researchers should strive to be impartial and open to unexpected findings and new ideas
  • the scientific norm that producing knowledge is a public act and the finding should be available for all to use; in order for it to be accepted into the community, it must be rigorously reviewed.
  • the scientific norm that demands utmost honesty in all aspects of the research process; dishonesty, fraud, or cheating are major taboos
  • the scientific norm that says research should be judged only on the basis of scientific merit
  • a process of judging the merits of a research report in which the peer researchers do not know the identity of who conducted a study and the researcher does not know the identity of the evaluators in advance

Question 5.5. (TCO 2) A person with an I.Q. of 80–90 is usually considered to be (Points : 3)

  • very superior
  • superior
  • bright normal
  • average
  • dull normal

Question 6.6. (TCO 2) A random sample, in which a researcher creates a sampling frame and uses a pure random process to select cases so that each sampling element in the population will have an equal probability of being selected, is called (Points : 3)

  • a sampling probability
  • a sampling error
  • a random sample
  • a simple random sample
  • sampling frame

Question 7.7. (TCO 2) The ______________ is a mathematical relationship that states: whenever many random samples are drawn from a population, a normal distribution is formed, and the center of the distribution for a variable equals the population parameter. (Points : 3)

  • central limit theorem
  • system sampling
  • confidence intervals
  • sampling interval
  • sampling theorem

Question 8.8. (TCO 2) A sampling interval is (Points : 3)

  • a random sample in which the researcher first identifies a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, divides the sampling frame by the categories, and then uses random selection to select cases from each category
  • a range of values, usually a little higher or lower than a specific value found in a sample, within which a researcher has a specified and high degree of confidence that the population parameters lie
  • the inverse of the sampling ration that is used when selecting cases in systematic sampling
  • a random sample in which a researcher selects every kth (e.g., 12th) case in the sample frame using a sampling interval
  • a type of random sample that uses multiple stages, and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected (with samples then drawn from the sampled aggregated units or clusters)

Question 9.9. (TCO 2) Snowball sampling is (Points : 3)

  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher begins with one case, and then, based on information about interrelationships from that case, identifies other cases, and repeats the process again and again
  • a sample in which the sampling elements are selected using something other than a mathematically random process
  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher first identifies general categories into which cases or people will be selected, and then selects cases in order to reach a predetermined number of cases in each category
  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher selects anyone he or she happens to come across
  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher uses a wide range of methods to locate all possible cases of a highly specific and difficult-to-reach population

Question 10.10. (TCO 3) When data are collected in such a way that the people being studied are unaware that they are part of a study, this is called (Points : 3)

  • direct observation
  • systematic observation
  • “snooping”
  • nonreactive data
  • indirect observation

Question 11.11. (TCO 3) A collection of documents or artifacts that a researcher can use as data is called (Points : 3)

  • physical traces
  • archival material
  • fossils
  • history
  • cultural remains

Question 12.12. (TCO 3) In their research on shoplifting, researchers found that people between the ages of ________ were the most likely to steal. (Points : 3)

  • 15 and 24
  • 25 and 34
  • 35 and 44
  • 45 and 55
  • above 56

Question 13.13. (TCO 3) A code book is (Points : 3)

  • the systematic reorganization of raw data into a format that is computer readable
  • a set of rules stating that certain numbers are assigned to variable attributes
  • a document describing the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can use
  • the act of writing the code categories directly on the questionnaire a data field

Question 14.14. (TCO 3) Precoding is (Points : 3)

  • the systematic reorganization of raw data into a format that is computer readable
  • a set of rules stating that certain numbers are assigned to variable attributes
  • a document describing the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can use
  • the act of writing the code categories directly on the questionnaire
  • a data field

Question 15.15. (TCO 3) The mean is (Points : 3)

  • a distribution of scores where the three measures of central tendency do not equal one another
  • the largest and smallest scores within a distribution of scores
  • the middle point of a distribution of scores (½ fall below and ½ fall above the median)
  • the most common or frequently occurring number in a distribution of scores
  • the arithmetic average of a distribution of scores

Question 16.16. (TCO 4) Academic periodicals that publish peer-reviewed research and essays are called (Points : 3)

  • literature reviews
  • scholarly journals
  • dissertations
  • none of the above
  • all of the above

Question 17.17. (TCO 4) An error in explanation in which the causal relationship is empirically untestable because the causal factor does not come earlier in time than the result, or because the causal factor is a vague, general force that cannot be empirically measured, is a(n) (Points : 3)

  • spurious relationship
  • reductionism
  • tautology
  • teleology
  • ecological fallacy

Question 18.18. (TCO 4) The name of a symbol system used to show parts of an experiment and to make diagrams of them is called (Points : 3)

  • symbols
  • design notation
  • design symbol
  • symbolic symbol
  • algebraic notation

Question 19.19. (TCO 4) A model of standardized survey research in which there are no communication problems and respondents’ responses perfectly match their thoughts is called (Points : 3)

  • a proper methodology
  • “getting lucky”
  • a naïve assumption model
  • a “perfect fit”
  • non-bias data collection

Question 20.20. (TCO 5) Sociological field research in the United States began at (Points : 3)

  • the University of Illinois
  • the University of California
  • the Marshall University
  • the University of Iowa
  • the University of Chicago

Question 21.21. (TCO 5) Knowledge that people rarely acknowledge and may not be explicitly aware of is called (Points : 3)

  • ethnography
  • explicit knowledge
  • common knowledge
  • tacit knowledge
  • common sense

Question 22.22. (TCO 5) Systematically collecting historical materials and analyzing those materials for the purpose of constructing a descriptive and/or theoretical account of what has happened in the past is called (Points : 3)

  • historical research
  • comparative research
  • historical-comparative research
  • bilateral research

Question 23.23. (TCO 5) Existing statistical research based on files, records, or documents that are maintained in a relatively consistent matter over a long period of time is called (Points : 3)

  • running research
  • comparative research
  • individual research
  • out of date research
  • recollections

Question 24.24. (TCO 6) This is considered a central objective of the ethnographic field research that requires a deep empathy with those being studied and their culture: (Points : 3)

  • building rapport
  • verstehen
  • applying for dual citizenship
  • acquiring a macabre sense of empathy

Question 25.25. (TCO 6) The principle that researchers should examine events as they occur in natural, everyday ongoing social settings refers to which of the following: (Points : 3)

  • artificialism
  • reflexivity
  • temporalism
  • naturalism
  • ethnography

Question 26.26. (TCO 6) Which method would be best used amalgamating a large body of interdisciplinary data? (Points : 3)

  • Qualitative document analysis
  • Academic legal research
  • Theoretical synthesis research
  • None of the above

Question 27.27. (TCO 6) A Latin legal concept that means that once a legal precedent has been made by a court, all subsequent judicial decisions should follow that precedent unless there is a compelling reason not to, is called (Points : 3)

  • mens rea
  • actus reus
  • stare decisis
  • the law of order
  • case law

Question 28.28. (TCO 7) A second stage of coding of qualitative data, in which a researcher organizes the codes, links them, and discovers key analytic categories, is called (Points : 3)

  • axial coding
  • open coding
  • coding
  • selective coding

Question 29.29. (TCO 7) A first coding of qualitative data, in which a researcher examines the data to condense them into preliminary analytic categories of codes, is called (Points : 3)

  • axial coding
  • open coding
  • coding
  • selective coding

Question 30.30. (TCO 7) A(n) ____________ is a statement that two objects, processes, or events are similar to each other. (Points : 3)

  • hypothesis
  • theory
  • analogy
  • contrast
  • distinction

Question 31.31. (TCO 7) An early step in the writing process during which a writer organizes notes, makes lists of ideas, outlines thoughts, and makes certain that bibliographic citations are complete, is called (Points : 3)

  • freewriting
  • prewriting
  • draft writing
  • post writing
  • originating

Question 32.32. (TCO 7) A summary of a research project’s findings placed at the beginning of a report for an applied, nonspecialist audience, usually a little longer than an abstract, is called (Points : 3)

  • the executive summary
  • editing
  • revising
  • sketching
  • freewriting

Question 33.33. (TCO 8) Calculate the mode from this list of numbers: 6, 5, 7, 10, 9, 5, 3, 5. (Points : 3)

  • 6.25
  • 5–10
  • 50
  • 5.5
  • 5

Short Answer Questions

Question 1. 1. (TCO 1) Explain the knowledge/power dynamic. (Points : 5)

Question 2. 2. (TCO 1) What are the four errors of personal experience that reinforce one another in a person’s life? (Points : 5)

Question 3. 3. (TCO 2) What are the four ways to improve statistical reliability? (Points : 5)

Question 4. 4. (TCO 2) Provide an example of how quota sampling would work. (Points : 5)

Question 5. 5. (TCO 3) Explain a graphed positive statistical relationship and what it means. (Points : 5)

Question 6. 6. (TCO 3) In three lines or less, describe a scattergram. (Points : 5)

Question 7. 7. (TCO 4) In three lines or less, explain the Zimbardo Prison Experiment. (p. 119) (Points : 5)

Question 8. 8. (TCO 4) Provide a short explanation of the role a field researcher adopts when he or she does not disclose to the research subjects the purpose or objective of the study. (Points : 5)

Question 9. 9. (TCO 5) List three of the seven deadly sins of memory. (Points : 5)

Question 10. 10. (TCO 5) What are the first three of seven steps in conducting legal research? (Points : 5)

Question 11. 11. (TCO 6) What do you call an open-ended interview with one person who describes his or her entire life? Provide an example when this could be used. (Points : 5)

Question 12. 12. (TCO 6) What do you call a special qualitative research technique in which people are informally interviewed in a small group discussion setting? Provide an example when this could be used. (Points : 5)

Question 13. 13. (TCO 7) List three of the six core elements of a narrative. (Points : 5)

Question 14. 14. (TCO 7) Your text states “clear writing is best achieved” by practicing five techniques. List three of those. (Points : 5)

Essay Questions

Question 1. 1. (TCO 1) Explain the mission and structure of the National Institute of Justice. (Points : 7)

Question 2. 2. (TCO 2) What are the three types of reliability? Explain each in detail. (Points : 7)

Question 3. 3. (TCO 2) Explain how the National Crime Victimization survey is conducted. (Points : 7)

Question 4. 4. (TCO 3) What is the difference between manifest coding and latent coding? (Points : 7)

Question 5. 5. (TCO 3) What is standard deviation? (Points : 7)

Question 6. 6. (TCO 4) What is the difference between voluntary consent and informed consent? (Points : 7)

Question 7. 7. (TCO 4) What are the five characteristics of a causal hypothesis? (Points : 7)

Question 8. 8. (TCO 5) List and explain the first three of six different levels in an access ladder. (Points : 7)

Question 9. 9. (TCO 5) Explain three advantages and three disadvantages of conducting mixed methods research. (Points : 7)

Question 10. 10. (TCO 6) Explain what Jeff Ferrell was doing when he admitted to “going native” and what his research was about. (Points : 7)

Question 11. 11. (TCO 6) What do you call the special language or terminology used by the members of a subculture or group that interacts regularly? Explain. (Points : 7)

Question 12. 12. (TCO 7) Explain the differences in the four types of “coding” in the chapter. (Points : 7)

Question 13. 13. (TCO 7) According to the conclusion to the book, what should be the ultimate purpose of criminal justice/criminology research? Explain. (Points : 7) Page: 1 2 3n